A conversation with Marina Calculli
GG students have made an interesting international trip in middle eastern studies thanks to a proposal at the “Universiteit Leiden” (The Netherlands) and the explanation of her research. She focused her work on “Hezbollah, the Lebanese State and the International Community “.
She focused on the conception of peace, security and the importance of international relations. Life in peace can be a difficult issue, even more in such a modern environment where everything is going too fast; “perception” can be useful in these terms because of a deeper evaluation of the context is needed.
Marina Calculli is a scholar of international relations and an expert of middle eastern political systems. She is of political violence and the proliferation of irregular armies in Syria, Lebanon, Iraq and Yemen. Actually, she is mainly concerned teaching at the University of Leiden in Netherlands and she has been a researcher at the Universities of Beirut, Oxford, Venice.
After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982, Israel occupied a strip of south Lebanon. Hezbollah emerged in South Lebanon during a consolidation of Shia militias as a rival to the older Amal Movement. This Shi’a Islamist political party played a significant role in the Lebanese civil war, opposing American forces in 1982-83.
The ideology of Hezbollah was described as Shi’i radicalism. The first objective was fighting against American, Israeli imperialism and the freedom for the occupied territories, such as South Lebanon. The second one was linked to gather all Muslims in the concept of ummah; is the Arab word for “community”.
This movement is considered one of the first Islamic resistance groups in the Middle East to use tactics of suicide bombing or assassination as murders.
In the 1990s, Hezbollah turned from a revolutionary group to a political one, “the Lebanonisation” of Hezbollah.
At the beginning many Hezbollah leaders have maintained that the movement was not an organization, the movement did not have a clearly defined organizational structure. These days, Hezbollah has a formal governing structure, keeping the principle of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists. In addition to that it is important to underline the internal and international pressure against Hezbollah. There is the existence of different opinions on Hezbollah that come from USA, Israel and International Community: this movement is considered as a terroristic organization that erases illegal weapons, the “Axis of Evil”. From a military point of view, the 2006 Lebanon war, also called “Israel-Hezbollah War and known in Lebanon as the July War, was a 34 days military conflict in Lebanon, Northern Israel and the Golan Heights. The principal parties were: Hezbollah paramilitary forces and the Israel Defense Forces. The conflict was precipitated by the 2006 Hezbollah cross-border raid, a cross border attack carried out by Lebanon-based Hezbollah militants on an Israeli military patrol on Israeli territory. The resolution, which was approved by both the Lebanese and Israeli governments, called for the disarmament of Hezbollah.
After having described the most relevant traits of Hezbollah
and its policy, the GG conversation follow with an interesting question:
What explains the power of Hezbollah?
It’s a puzzle of conflicts and violence. It has multilateral facets and different parties. There are two dimensions of Hezbollah realities: a political and military one. The first one is focused on lebanonization and socialization; the terror inside it is arrived to everyone. The second one concerns the asymmetrical life with the army